The Third World ascended like a sky-rocket—and fell like the proverbial stick.  Invented by Alfred Sauvy in 1952, in an article in L’Observateur entitled ‘Three Worlds, One Planet’, the termtiers monde became central to the discourse of the European left (including this journal) by the 1960s. While the long post-war boom seemed to have taken the fight out of the metropolitan working class, revolutions from China to Cuba, and national liberation struggles from Algeria to Vietnam, inspired a new generation. Hồ Chí Minh and Che Guevara became heroes, and the writings of Frantz Fanon and Régis Debray were eagerly studied. Yet by the end of the seventies the news from Pol Pot’s Cambodia had crushed the illusions of the sixties generation; the advances of globalization seemed to make the very notion of a ‘Third World’ obsolete. Today the term is considered outdated and derogatory.Nowhere did Third Worldism take on such dramatic form as in France, which from 1946 to 1962 was in a nearly permanent state of colonial war, in Indochina and then in Algeria. After 1962 it took three decades before the full horrific truth could be faced; only in 1999 was it officially acknowledged that there had been a ‘war’ in Algeria. That France is still haunted by its colonial past is shown by such films as Alain Tasma’s Nuit noire (2005) and Rachid Bouchareb’s Hors-la-loi(2010), and novels like Jérôme Ferrari’s Where I Left My Soul (2010). Perhaps the most vivid depiction comes in Alexis Jenni’s 2011 Goncourt-winning novel L’art français de la guerre, which traces the odyssey of a single soldier from the Resistance, through Indochina and Algeria, to the violent banlieue of Lyon. There is a huge literature on the subject, but one of the most comprehensive and dispassionate treatments of the impact of Third Worldism on the French left intelligentsia has come from Germany, a nation that never suffered the trauma of decolonization. Christoph Kalter’s carefully researched study (with a bibliography of over nine hundred books and articles) Die Entdeckung der Dritten Welt offers a detailed account of how ideas of the Third World developed on the French left, in the process remaking it.